The association of nocturnal hypertension and nondipping blood pressure with treatment-resistant hypertension: The Jackson Heart Study

Academic Article


  • ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH), nocturnal hypertension, and nondipping blood pressure (BP) have shared risk factors. The authors studied the association between aTRH and nocturnal hypertension and aTRH and nondipping BP among 524 black Jackson Heart Study participants treated for hypertension. Nocturnal hypertension was defined by mean nighttime systolic BP ≥120 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥70 mm Hg. Nondipping BP was defined by mean nighttime to daytime systolic BP ratio >0.90. aTRH was defined by mean clinic systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg with three medication classes or treatment with four or more classes. The risk for developing aTRH associated with nondipping BP and nocturnal hypertension was estimated. After multivariable adjustment, participants with aTRH were more likely to have nocturnal hypertension (prevalence ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.39) and nondipping (prevalence ratio, 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.09–1.43). Over a median 7.3 years of follow-up, nocturnal hypertension and nondipping BP at baseline were not associated with developing aTRH after adjustment.
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    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Irvin MR; Booth JN; Sims M; Bress AP; Abdalla M; Shimbo D; Calhoun DA; Muntner P
  • Start Page

  • 438
  • End Page

  • 446
  • Volume

  • 20
  • Issue

  • 3