© 2018 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation We performed a phase 1/2 trial to investigate the safety and activity of the second-generation proteasome inhibitor Carfilzomib (K) on days -3/-2 in combination with melphalan 200 mg/m 2 (MEL200) on day -2 (K-MEL) in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma (MM) undergoing autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (phases 1 and 2). Patients without progression received 12 cycles of K maintenance at 36 mg/m 2 days 1, 8, and 15 (schedule A) or days 1, 2, 15, and 16 (schedule B), with patients being treated for 2 cycles in each schedule and on the patient-preferred schedule for the remaining cycles (phase 2). The patients had received a median of 3 previous lines of therapy, 56% had undergone previous AHCT, and 51% had received previous K therapy. During phase 1 (n = 15), the maximum tolerated dose of K in combination with MEL200 was not reached, so the maximum tested dose of 27 mg/m 2 (on day -3) and 56 mg/m 2 (on day -2) was used in phase 2. The rate of very good partial response after K-MEL therapy (n = 44) was 59.2%, compared with 13.7% before K-MEL therapy. Among patients starting maintenance therapy (n = 27), 12-month progression-free survival was 66.7% and 12-month overall survival was 88.1%. There was no strong patient preference for either schedule. Two patients discontinued maintenance due to toxicity. K-MEL followed by K maintenance is safe and active salvage therapy in patients with MM.