Based on a three-dimensional model of self-construal (independent, collective interdependent, and relational interdependent self-construal), the present study investigated whether self-construal systematically related to exchange and communal orientation with data (357 participants) collected in Taiwan (N= 178) and the USA (N= 179). United States participants scored significantly higher on all scales except for relational interdependent self-construal. Females exhibited significantly higher scores for relational interdependent self-construal and communal orientation. As predicted, independent self-construal was related to exchange orientation and relational interdependent self-construal was related to communal orientation. However, in contrast to what was expected, collective interdependent self-construal was only marginally related to communal orientation. The findings for scales revised for validity were compared with scales including all items. This comparison disclosed differences for exchange orientation.