Fas transduces not only apoptotic signals through various pathways but also angiogenic and proinflammatory responses in vivo. Human glioma cells express Fas although sensitivity to Fas-mediated cell death is variable, suggesting that Fas may have functions other than apoptosis in these cells. In this study, we addressed alternative functions of Fas expressed on human gliomas by Fas ligation in three human glioma cell lines, CRT-MG, U373-MG, and U87-MG, and the in vivo expression of Fas and chemokines in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Herein, we demonstrate that: (a) stimulation with agonistic anti-Fas monoclonal antibody CH-11 and human recombinant soluble Fas ligand induces expression of the CC chemokine MCP-1 and the CXC chemokine interleukin-8 by human glioma cell lines at the mRNA and protein levels in a dose- and timedependent manner; (b) selective pharmacological inhibitors of MEK1 (U0126 and PD98059) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (SB202190) suppress Fas-mediated chemokine expression in a dose-dependent manner; (c) Fas ligation on human glioma cells leads to activation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/ERK2 and p38 MAPK; and (d) GBM samples express higher levels of Fas compared with normal control brain, which correlates with increased interleukin 8 expression. These findings indicate that Fas ligation on human glioma cells leads to the selective induction of chemokine expression, which involves the ERK1/ERK2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. Therefore, the Fas-Fas ligand system in human brain tumors may be involved not only in apoptotic processes but also in the provocation of angiogenic and proinflammatory responses.