Envelope glycoprotein gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 alters ion transport in astrocytes: Implications for AIDS dementia complex

Academic Article

Abstract

  • Infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is often complicated by a variety of neurological abnormalities. The most common clinical syndrome, termed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex, presents as a subcortical dementia with cognitive, motor, and behavioral disturbances and is unique to HIV-1 infection. The pathogenesis of this syndrome is poorly understood but is believed to involve interactions among virally infected macrophages/microglia, astrocytes, and neurons. In this study, we show that exposure of primary rat and human astrocytes to heat-activated HIV-1 virions, or to eukaryotically expressed HIV-1 and HIV-2 envelope glycoproteins (gp120) stimulates amiloride-sensitive Na+/H+ antiport, potassium conductance, and glutamate efflux. These effects are blocked specifically by amiloride, an inhibitor of Na+/H+ antiport and by the selective removal of gp120 with immobilized monoclonal antibody. As a result of modulation of astrocytic function by gp120, the ensuing neuronal depolarization and glutamate exposure could activate both voltage-gated and N-methyl-D-aspartate-regulated Ca2+ channels, leading to increases in intraneuronal Ca2+ and neuronal death. These findings implicate the astrocyte directly in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia complex.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Benos DJ; Hahn BH; Bubien JK; Ghosh SK; Mashburn NA; Chaikin MA; Shaw GM; Benveniste EN
  • Start Page

  • 494
  • End Page

  • 498
  • Volume

  • 91
  • Issue

  • 2