© 2018, The Author(s). The decline of oxygen tension in the tissues below the physiological demand leads to the hypoxic adaptive response. This physiological consequence enables cells to recover from this cellular insult. Understanding the cellular pathways that mediate recovery from hypoxia is therefore critical for developing novel therapeutic approaches for cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The master regulators of oxygen homeostasis that control angiogenesis during hypoxia are hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIF-1 and HIF-2 function as transcriptional regulators and have both unique and overlapping target genes, whereas the role of HIF-3 is less clear. HIF-1 governs the acute adaptation to hypoxia, whereas HIF-2 and HIF-3 expressions begin during chronic hypoxia in human endothelium. When HIF-1 levels decline, HIF-2 and HIF-3 increase. This switch from HIF-1 to HIF-2 and HIF-3 signaling is required in order to adapt the endothelium to prolonged hypoxia. During prolonged hypoxia, the HIF-1 levels and activity are reduced, despite the lack of oxygen-dependent protein degradation. Although numerous protein factors have been proposed to modulate the HIF pathways, their application for HIF-targeted therapy is rather limited. Recently, the miRNAs that endogenously regulate gene expression via the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway have been shown to play critical roles in the hypoxia response pathways. Furthermore, these classes of RNAs provide therapeutic possibilities to selectively target HIFs and thus modulate the HIF switch. Here, we review the significance of the microRNAs on the relationship between the HIFs under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions.