Type 2 diabetes has profound effects on metabolism that can be detected in plasma. While increases in circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are well-described in diabetes, effects on signaling lipids have received little attention. Oxylipins and endocannabinoids are classes of bioactive fatty acid metabolites with many structural members that influence insulin signaling, adipose function and inflammation through autocrine, paracrine and endocrine mechanisms. To link diabetes-associated changes in plasma NEFA and signaling lipids, we quantitatively targeted >150 plasma lipidome components in age- and body mass index-matched, overweight to obese, non-diabetic (n = 12) and type 2 diabetic (n = 43) African-American women. Diabetes related NEFA patterns indicated ~60% increase in steroyl-CoA desaturase activity and ~40% decrease in very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid chain shortening, patterns previously associated with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Further, epoxides and ketones of eighteen carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids were elevated >80% in diabetes and strongly correlated with changes in NEFA, consistent with their liberation during adipose lipolysis. Endocannabinoid behavior differed by class with diabetes increasing an array of N-acylethanolamides which were positively correlated with pro-inflammatory 5-lipooxygenase-derived metabolites, while monoacylglycerols were negatively correlated with body mass. These results clearly show that diabetes not only results in an increase in plasma NEFA, but shifts the plasma lipidomic profiles in ways that reflect the biochemical and physiological changes of this pathological state which are independent of obesity associated changes.