Galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) is a key pathogenic factor for IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and a potential biomarker for the disease. This study examined serial serum Gd-IgA1 levels over 1 year in 13 children with IgAN and 40 healthy children, to determine whether or not serum Gd-IgA1 levels changed over time. Subjects were younger than 18 years of age. Follow-up measurements were scheduled 6 and/or 12 months later. Analysis of variance and regression models for repeated measures were used to estimate group and time effects. Serum Gd-IgA1 level was higher in initial samples for IgAN patients compared to those of healthy children (P<0.0001). Serum Gd-IgA1 levels did not change over time for healthy controls but increased for IgAN patients (P=0.001). Serum Gd-IgA1 level was elevated for 9 children with IgAN at study entry and remained elevated. Two of the 4 IgAN patients with initially normal Gd-IgA1 levels had a subsequent elevated level. The persistent elevation of the serum Gd-IgA1 level in children with IgAN enhances its utility as a potential diagnostic test for IgAN.