The clinical features, pathology, immune responses, diagnosis and treatment of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) in the Sudan are described and discussed. The disease is characterized by maculopapular or nodular lesions on the face, limbs or trunk. Lesions appear during or within months after the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, but in 2 of 19 patients there was no previous history of kala-azar. PKDL may be confused with leprosy both clinically and pathologically. Similarities and differences between the 2 diseases are discussed. Unlike visceral leishmaniasis, the peripheral lymphoid cells of patients with PKDL respond to Leishmania antigen and some are leishmanin positive. The response to intravenous sodium stibogluconate (20 mg/kg for 30 d) was reasonably good but some patients required repeated or more prolonged treatment. Ketoconazole in a dose of 10 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks had no effect on PKDL. © Oxford University Press.