Although schistosomiasis affects 200 million persons, 20 million of whom have advanced disease, little is known about the mortality pattern in areas of endemic schistosomiasis mansoni. In an attempt to assess the mortality rates in an endemic area in Sudan, we conducted two demographic surveys in a village in the Gezira area. Clinical, sonographic, and parasitologic examinations were performed in a randomly selected sample of 25% of the population in 1987 and 1994. One of us asked each head of household about the names, sex, and age of family members. Particularly, we asked about death in the family if any, history of schistosomiasis, abdominal swelling, and hematemesis. Possible causes of death were ascertained by reviewing medical records in the village dispensary and the district hospital. There were 42 deaths in the village. Four males died of hematemesis secondary to portal fibrosis. The crude mortality rate of schistosomiasis was is 51/100,000/year. The overall schistosomiasis fatality rate per year was 1/1,000 infected persons, but was as high as 11/100/infected patients with bleeding varices. These findings showed the impact of schistosomiasis on public health in this economically important region of Sudan.