β-thalassemia is a group of inherited blood disorders that result in defects in β-globin chain production. Cooley anemia (CA), or β-thalassemia major, is the most severe form of the disease and occurs when an individual has mutations in both copies of the adult β-globin gene. Patients with CA fail to make adult hemoglobin, exhibit ineffective erythropoiesis, experience severe anemia, and are transfusion dependent for life. Currently, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is the only cure; however, few patients have suitable donors for this procedure, which has significant morbidity and mortality. In this study, a novel humanized murine model of CA is rescued from lethal anemia by allogeneic BMT in the absence of cytoreductive conditioning. A single intravenous postnatal injection of allogeneic bone marrow results in stable, mixed hematopoietic chimerism. Five months after transplantation, donor cells accounted for approximately 90% of circulating erythrocytes and up to 15% of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Transplanted mice are transfusion independent, have marked improvement of hematological indices, exhibit no growth retardation or signs of graft-versus-host disease, and are fertile. This study describes a method for the consistent engraftment of allogeneic donor hematopoietic cells that rescues a humanized mouse model of CA from lethal anemia, all in the absence of toxic cytoreductive conditioning.