Objectives: To provide an overview of the impact of smoking after a diagnosis of lung cancer, discuss the relationship between smoking cessation and improved outcomes, present information about tobacco-dependence treatments, reimbursement for these treatments, and resources available for patients and health care professionals. Data Sources: Published articles, reports, websites, and research studies. Conclusion: Prevention of tobacco use and cessation are primary ways to prevent lung cancer. However, even after a diagnosis of lung cancer, smoking cessation is important in improving survival and quality of life. Although effective treatments are available to help smokers quit, persistent efforts over repeated contacts may be necessary to achieve long-term cessation. Implications for Nursing Practice: Oncology nursing action is essential in the identification of and intervention with patients who struggle with tobacco dependence after diagnosis. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.