Computational fluid dynamics modeling of steady-state momentum and mass transport in a bioreactor for cartilage tissue engineering

Academic Article

Abstract

  • Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models to quantify momentum and mass transport under conditions of tissue growth will aid bioreactor design for development of tissue-engineered cartilage constructs. Fluent CFD models are used to calculate flow fields, shear stresses, and oxygen profiles around nonporous constructs simulating cartilage development in our concentric cylinder bioreactor. The shear stress distribution ranges from 1.5 to 12 dyn/cm2 across the construct surfaces exposed to fluid flow and varies little with the relative number or placement of constructs in the bioreactor. Approximately 80% of the construct surface exposed to flow experiences shear stresses between 1.5 and 4 dyn/cm2, validating the assumption that the concentric cylinder bioreactor provides a relatively homogeneous hydrodynamic environment for construct growth. Species mass transport modeling for oxygen demonstrates that fluid-phase oxygen transport to constructs is uniform. Some O2 depletion near the down stream edge of constructs is noted with minimum pO2 values near the constructs of 35 mmHg (23% O2 saturation). These values are above oxygen concentrations in cartilage in vivo, suggesting that bioreactor oxygen concentrations likely do not affect chondrocyte growth. Scale-up studies demonstrate the utility and flexibility of CFD models to design and characterize bioreactors for growth of tissue-engineered cartilage.
  • Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Williams KA; Saini S; Wick TM
  • Start Page

  • 951
  • End Page

  • 963
  • Volume

  • 18
  • Issue

  • 5