PURPOSE: To describe the development of an instrument to measure women's knowledge of osteoporosis based on Orem's self-care theory and the latest clinical research on osteoporosis. SAMPLE: One hundred and four women from four groups including graduate and undergraduate nursing students, sociology students, and a community sample, completed the instrument. METHODS: Items for the instrument were developed from three objectives related to osteoporosis risk factors, known facts and preventive behaviors. There were 34 items on the original instrument. It was content validated by experts and subjected to item analysis. The report contains a copy of the instrument with the theoretical classification and item analysis. FINDINGS: The Facts on Osteoporosis Quiz had a content validity index of .92, a reliability of .83 and a reading level of sixth grade. Item difficulty and item discrimination were used to delete items. The final instrument contains 25 items. CONCLUSION: The quiz is a simple, inexpensive measure that can be used in various settings by nurses to assess women's knowledge of self-care in osteoporosis.