Purpose: (a) to summarize genomic influences in schizophrenia, (b) to review the molecular genetic profile associated with schizophrenia, (c) to summarize the genetic factors affecting dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitter systems, and (d) to list nursing implications for this knowledge. Organizing Framework: Schizophrenia and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, both clustered in families, arise from both genetic and environmental influences. Schizophrenia does not develop from a single genetic mutation but rather from many genetic alterations acting together. Conclusions: Studies focused on genetic polymorphisms of neurotransmitter systems pique nurses' interest because pharmacological interventions affecting those systems remain the primary approach to treatment. Atypical antipsychotics have in common the ability to antagonize dopaminergic and serotonergic receptors. This review includes the recent discoveries regarding genetic modifications affecting dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitter systems and their potential as a basis for treatment. ©2005 Sigma Theta Tau International.