Does Biology Matter in Parent–Child Relationships? Examining Parental Warmth Among Adolescents From Low-Income Families

Academic Article


  • Family structure has long been a consideration in research focused on adolescent outcomes. The current study uses data derived from the Mobile Youth Survey to examine how parental warmth differs over time for male and female adolescents reporting biological parents and other parental figures (e.g., grandparents, aunts, and siblings). Using estimation of random and fixed growth effects, significant differences were noted for parental type and for adolescent gender. Paternal warmth trajectories decreased across time for biological fathers, while maternal warmth remained stable for biological mothers. Conversely, maternal and paternal warmth trajectories increased from ages 11 to 18 for other parental figures. Implications for adolescent–parent relations are discussed, with an emphasis on family structure and the contributions of other parental figures on adolescent outcomes in Black American families.
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    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Jaggers JW; Bolland AC; Tomek S; Church WT; Hooper LM; Bolland KA; Bolland JM
  • Start Page

  • 225
  • End Page

  • 247
  • Volume

  • 38
  • Issue

  • 2