Objective: To evaluate school immunization records and document the immunization coverage and compliance level of children enrolled in kindergarten in Phoenix during the 2001-2002 school year. The purpose was to obtain information on: 1) immunization status by age two; 2) under-immunization in kindergarten; 3) administration error; and 4) transcription error. Methods: Vaccination levels were estimated by conducting a retrospective immunization coverage survey of the immunization records of children in SW, SE, NE, and NW regions of Phoenix. A two-stage cluster design was used. Schools were randomly selected with the regions and students were systematically selected within the schools. Setting: Twelve schools from Phoenix were surveyed. Immunization records for 865 student records were assessed. Children who had incomplete or unknown records were identified. Information on date of birth and dates of vaccination of each dose of vaccine was collected. Results: Of the 857 records included in the analyses, 30.6 per cent were from the NE, 19.9 per cent from the NW, 17.8 per cent from the SE and 31.7 per cent were from the SW. Private school students comprised 18.4 per cent of the sample, 78.3 per cent were from public schools and 3.4 per cent from charter schools. Examining the sample, 30.5 per cent did not have the shots required by age two (four Dtap, three Polio, one MMR), 11.4 per cent of shots were administered before the minimum age and/or interval, 16.0 per cent did not have the shots required for entrance to kindergarten (four Dtap, three Polio, two MMR, three HEP B) and 10.8 per cent of the records contained transcription errors. Conclusion: The data showed that vaccination rates varied by region. None of the schools were in full compliance with the Arizona goal of 95 per cent of all kindergarten students being up to date. The vaccination levels were also below the National 2010 goal of 90 per cent by age two. The high administration error rate indicates that providers need to administer vaccines according to the recommended schedule. Further assessment must be done to determine effective interventions to target specific populations. Copyright © SAGE 2007.