Fifty-seven cardiac transplants in 53 patients have been performed; 30 survived for at least 3 months. Malignant neoplasms developed in 3 (10%) of these patients. This incidence is more than double that in recipients of donor kidneys at the authors' institution. Kaposi's sarcoma developed in 3 patients in the combined groups and accounted for 30% of all malignant neoplasms. The possible reasons for these high incidences are discussed.