The problem of anti-pig antibodies in pig-to-primate xenografting: Current and novel methods of depletion and/or suppression of production of anti-pig antibodies

Academic Article


  • The role of antibodies directed against Galα1-3Gal (α-Gal) epitopes in porcine-to-primate xenotransplantation has been widely studied during the past few years. These antibodies (anti-α-Gal) have been associated with both hyperacute rejection and acute vascular rejection of vascularized organs. Depletion and (temporary or permanent) suppression of production of anti-α- Gal seem to be essential to the long-term survival of these organs, even when the ultimate aim is accommodation or tolerance. Although more than 95% depletion of anti-α-Gal can be achieved by the use of immunoaffinity column technology, to date no regimen has been successful in preventing the return of anti-α-Gal (from continuing production). In this review, we discuss current and novel methods for achieving depletion or inhibition (i.e. extracorporeal immunoadsorption, anti-idiotypic antibodies, the intravenous infusion of immunoglobulin or oligosaccharides) and suppression of production (i.e. irradiation, pharmacologic agents, specific monoclonal antibodies, immunotoxins) of anti-α-Gal antibodies.
  • Authors

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    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Alwayn IPJ; Basker M; Buhler L; Cooper DKC
  • Start Page

  • 157
  • End Page

  • 168
  • Volume

  • 6
  • Issue

  • 3