Background and Purpose: The pig is being investigated as an organ donor for humans. Induction of immunologic tolerance to pig tissues in primates would overcome the major immunologic barriers to xenotransplantation. A proven method of inducing tolerance to allografts is by the induction of mixed hematopoietic chimerism by bone marrow transplantation. We are therefore investigating induction of mixed hematopoietic chimerism in the pig-to-baboon model. Methods: To obtain large numbers of pig hematopoietic cells, leukapheresis was used to collect blood cell products in miniature swine (n = 5) after progenitor cell mobilization by use of a course of hematopoietic growth factors (cytokines), consisting of porcine interleukin 3, porcine stem cell factor, and human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Results: Cytokine therapy and leukapheresis were well tolerated. Cytokine therapy increased the total white blood cell count and allowed large numbers of leukocytes (60 x 1010) to be obtained by apheresis, of which approximately 0.1% were granulocyte-erythrocyte-monocyte-megakaryocyte colony-forming units (CFU-GEMMs), which are considered to be representative of hematopoietic progenitors with multi-lineage potential. Conclusions: The combination of cytokine therapy and leukapheresis enables hematopoietic progenitor cells to be obtained safely from miniature swine.