The histologic findings in a total of 112 experimental heart transplants comprising allografts (baboon to baboon: n = 37), concordant xenografts(vervet monkey to baboon: n = 52), and discordant xenografts (pig to baboon: n = 23), in which the roles of ABO blood group incompatibility, corcordance, and immunosuppression were evaluated, are described. Hyperacute (vascular, humoral) rejection was characterized by disruption of the microcirculation, with interstitial hemorrhage and edema, rather than by intravascular thrombosis; the features were basically similar whether hyperacute rejection occurred in an ABO-incompatible allograft, concordant xenograft, or discordant xenograft. Hyperacute rejection was noted in all 23 discordant xenografts, in 12 of 52 concordant xenografts, and in four of 17 ABO-incompatible allografts. A unique mixture of acute and hyperacute rejection was observed in three ABO-incompatible allografts and in 10 concordant xenografts. Intensive antirejection therapy was associated with a reduced incidence of hyperacute rejection in corcordant xenografts but also with a significant number of fatal treatment-related complications.