Aim: to study whether sensitization to pig antigens results in humoral and/or cellular sensitization to alloantigens in baboons, and thus increases the risks of organ allotransplantation after xenotransplantation. Serum from baboons that were naive (n = 4), sensitized to Galα1,3Gal (Gal) antigens (n = 2), or sensitized to Gal + non-Gal pig antigens (n = 2) were tested by flow cytometry for the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies that bind to pig or baboon peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Two allosensitized baboons were used as positive controls. The same 10 sera were tested in a complement-mediated cytotoxicity assay to detect cytotoxic antibodies against pig, allo and self-PBMC. The T-cell responses of the same baboons to allogeneic and pig PBMC stimulators in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) were studied. All baboon sera contained cytotoxic antibodies that bound to pig PBMC. Binding and cytotoxicity were higher in xenosensitized baboons, particularly in those sensitized to Gal + non-Gal antigens (P < 0.001). None of the naive or xenosensitized baboon sera bound to baboon PBMC. Serum from allosensitized baboons showed anti-baboon IgG and IgM binding, but there was no increase in binding to pig PBMC or in cytotoxicity to pig cells. The MLR response to pig stimulators in baboons sensitized to non-Gal pig antigens was greater than that of naive or Gal-sensitized baboons (P < 0.001), but there was no increase in the response to baboon cells. In baboons, no in vitro evidence that a previous pig xenograft might endanger the outcome of a subsequent allograft was documented.