Spleen transplantation (SpTx) was performed in miniature swine across full major histocompatibility complex barriers to study the tolerogenic effect of the spleen. This study describes the development of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) after allogeneic SpTx. Recipient pigs underwent whole body irradiation (100 cGy), thymic irradiation (700 cGy), and native splenectomy (day 0), and received a 45-day course of intravenous cyclosporine (trough level 400-800 ng/ml). After SpTx, two of seven pigs developed PTLD (1 donor-type, 1 host-type). These two pigs had greater T cell depletion and higher trough levels of cyclosporine. Early changes that occurred prior to the development of clinical features of PTLD were increased porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus-1 viral loads in blood and tissues, and increased numbers of leukocytes, B cells, and total serum IgM. PTLD can occur after allogeneic SpTx in swine. This model may be useful in studies of the pathogenesis of PTLD.