Background: Xenotransplantation using pigs as source species carries a risk for the activation of latent herpesviruses from the porcine donor and potential transmission to the recipient. In pig-to-baboon xenotransplantation, activation of porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) has been associated with xenograft injury and an increased incidence of consumptive coagulopathy and graft loss. Activation of porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus (PLHV)-1 was not observed in pig-to-baboon solid organ xenotransplantation, but was associated with a syndrome of post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in pigs. Material and Methods: Early weaning of piglets was used to try to reduce the viral burden of xenograft donors. This consisted of separating the piglets of a litter from the sow within the first 2 weeks after birth and raising them in isolation from the remaining herd. Results: We have previously demonstrated that PCMV could be excluded from source animals by early weaning of piglets. However, early weaning failed to exclude PLHV-1 from source pigs. Conclusions: This disparity between PCMV and PLHV-1 reflects differing pathogenesis of infection of these herpesviruses. New approaches will be needed to exclude PLHV-1 from pig colonies.