Hearts from α1,3-Galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GaIT-KO) pigs were transplanted heterotopically into 8 baboons that received an anti-CD154 monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based immunosuppressive regimen and heparin. Three baboons died or were euthanized with beating grafts on 16, 23, and 56 days, respectively, and the remaining 5 grafts functioned for 59-179 days. Hyperacute rejection did not occur, and classical features of acute humoral xenograft or acute cellular rejection were rare. However, thrombotic microangiopathy (TM) developed in all cases; its onset was delayed in 2 baboons that received aspirin. Function of a pig organ in a baboon for a period approaching 6 months has not been reported previously and lends encouragement that the barriers to xenotransplantation will be overcome, but TM requires investigation. © 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.