Repopulation of memory T cells (Tmem) in allograft recipients after lymphodepletion is a major barrier to transplant tolerance induction. Ineffective depletion of naïve T cells (Tn) and Tmem may predispose to repopulation of Tmem after transplantation. Cynomolgus macaque monkeys given heart allografts were lymphodepleted using Alemtuzumab (Campath-1H; anti-CD52). Peripheral blood (PB) and lymph nodes (LN) were analyzed for CD95- (Tn) and CD95+ cells (Tmem), one day, one month and up to three months after Alemtuzumab infusion. CD52 expression, susceptibility to Alemtuzumab cytotoxicity and pro-apoptotic caspase-3 were evaluated in Tn and Tmem. In vivo, Alemtuzumab induction profoundly depleted lymphocytes in PB (99% reduction) but exerted a lesser effect in LN (70% reduction), with similar depletion of Tn and Tmem subsets. After transplantation, Tmem comprised the majority of lymphocytes in PB and LN. In vitro, LN T cells were more resistant to Alemtuzumab-mediated cytotoxicity than PB lymphocytes. CD4+ Tn and Tmem were equally susceptible to Alemtuzumab-mediated cytotoxicity, whereas CD8+ Tn were more resistant than CD8+ Tmem. However, no significant differences in CD52 expression between lymphocyte subsets in PB and LN were observed. Caspase-3 expression was higher in PB than LN T cells. CD4+ and CD8+ Tn expressed lower levels of Caspase-3 than Tmem, in both PB and LN. Thus, after Alemtuzumab infusion, residual Tn in secondary lymphoid tissue may predispose to rapid recovery of Tmem in allograft recipients. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.