Histopathologic insights into the mechanism of anti-non-Gal antibody-mediated pig cardiac xenograft rejection

Academic Article


  • The histopathology of cardiac xenograft rejection has evolved over the last 20 yr with the development of new modalities for limiting antibody-mediated injury, advancing regimens for immune suppression, and an ever-widening variety of new donor genetics. These new technologies have helped us progress from what was once an overwhelming anti-Gal-mediated hyperacute rejection to a more protracted anti-Gal-mediated vascular rejection to what is now a more complex manifestation of non-Gal humoral rejection and coagulation dysregulation. This review summarizes the changing histopathology of Gal- and non-Gal-mediated cardiac xenograft rejection and discusses the contributions of immune-mediated injury, species-specific immune-independent factors, transplant and therapeutic procedures, and donor genetics to the overall mechanism(s) of cardiac xenograft rejection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • Authors

    Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Byrne GW; Azimzadeh AM; Ezzelarab M; Tazelaar HD; Ekser B; Pierson RN; Robson SC; Cooper DKC; McGregor CGA
  • Start Page

  • 292
  • End Page

  • 307
  • Volume

  • 20
  • Issue

  • 5