The control of perioperative infection has become more important to increase the success rate of organ transplantation. Thorough examination for occult infection prior to transplantation, careful postoperative monitoring and prompt treatment of infections are required. We reviewed the medical records of 278 patients who received organ transplantation over 4 years and analysed the clinical course of rhinosinusitis during the pre- and post-transplantation period. Thirty-two (11.5%) patients had rhinosinusitis. Nineteen were detected during preoperative examination and 13 were postoperative. Sinus surgery was performed in nine patients before organ transplantation. Ten out of 13 patients who had rhinosinusitis detected after transplantation required sinus surgery and three patients had invasive fungal infections. In the immunocompromised host, the clinical presentation of rhinosinusitis may be subtle, but the subsequent clinical course may be fulminant or even fatal. If the transplant recipient has unexplained fever or any nasal symptom, thorough evaluation with a high index of suspicion and prompt management are required.