Treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus involves a multifaceted regimen that includes daily blood glucose monitoring, insulin injections, a dietary plan, and regular exercise. Although treatment for diabetes is essential for survival and good health, adolescents show a precipitous decline in treatment adherence from childhood to adolescence and thus warrant clinical attention. Several variables have been linked to poor adherence, but to date, these variables have not been integrated into a cogent framework for clinicians and researchers. Hence, the purpose of this article is to review the Current literature on significant correlates and to propose a model that organizes these variables into a practical framework for conceptualizing adolescents' adherence to diabetes treatment. Copyright © 2006, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Inc.