To evaluate current and lifetime prevalence rates of nocturnal enuresis and psychosocial problems among children with sickle cell disease (SCD) in comparison with sibling controls, a structured interview and the Pediatric Symptom Checklist were administered to primary caretakers regarding 126 of their children aged 5 to 17 with SCD and 47 sibling controls. Lifetime rates of enuresis among children with SCD were comparable to similar studies, and exceeded population prevalence and sibling control rates. In addition, enuretic children had higher levels of total psychosocial problems on the Pediatric Symptom Checklist regardless of group status, although patterns of subscale differences varied by group and enuresis history after controlling for child age. These findings replicate and extend previous findings and provide further evidence to support a need for monitoring of hydration levels and screening for psychosocial problems among children with SCD and enuresis, as well as evaluation of the psychometric properties of psychosocial screening measures and identification of efficacious treatments for enuresis in children with SCD. Copyright © 2005 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.