It has been reported that plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels are elevated in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study was to investigate the change in these patients after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). In 66 patients with paroxysmal AF (PAF) and without any structural heart disease, plasma ANP and BNP levels were measured before and 3 months after successful PVI. At baseline, in 14 patients, ANP and BNP levels were elevated, and in 52 patients, only BNP levels were elevated. There were no significant relations between the attack frequency or the duration of PAF episodes and ANP or BNP levels. Neither ANP nor BNP level at baseline was a valid predictor of AF recurrence. Even in 31 patients (47%) with recurrent PAF, attacks of PAF were significantly reduced. In 66 patients with elevated ANP and/or BNP levels at baseline, levels were significantly reduced after PVI independent of PAF recurrence (ANP: 69.0 ± 23.0 vs 25.0 ± 7.7 pg/ml, p <0.0001; BNP: 58.4 ± 50.7 vs 22.5 ± 27.1 pg/ml, p <0.0001). In 42 patients without AF recurrences, ANP and BNP levels were reduced to within the normal range. In conclusion, in patients with PAF without any structural heart disease, ANP and/or BNP levels were elevated. In those patients, relief of the AF burden by successful PVI significantly reduced elevated plasma ANP and BNP levels. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.