© 2017 The Author(s). The blood-nerve barrier (BNB), formed by tight junction-forming microvessels within peripheral nerve endoneurium, exists to regulate its internal microenvironment essential for effective axonal signal transduction. Relatively little is known about the unique human BNB molecular composition. Such knowledge is crucial to comprehend the relationships between the systemic circulation and peripheral nerves in health, adaptations to intrinsic or extrinsic perturbations and alterations that may result in disease. We performed RNA-sequencing on cultured early- and late-passage adult primary human endoneurial endothelial cells and laser-capture microdissected endoneurial microvessels from four cryopreserved normal adult human sural nerves referenced to the Genome Reference Consortium Human Reference 37 genome browser, using predefined criteria guided by known transcript or protein expression in vitro and in situ. We identified 12881 common transcripts associated by 125 independent biological networks, defined as the normal adult BNB transcriptome, including a comprehensive array of transporters and specialized intercellular junctional complex components. These identified transcripts and their interacting networks provide insights into peripheral nerve microvascular morphogenesis, restrictive barrier formation, influx and efflux transporters with relevance to understanding peripheral nerve homeostasis and pharmacology, including targeted drug delivery and the mediators of leukocyte trafficking in peripheral nerves during normal immunosurveillance.