The number of older drivers in Sweden will be rapidly increasing during the next decades. A possible relationship exists between the increased relative crash risk of older drivers and the prevalence of age-related diseases such as dementia. However, a clear-cut policy for evaluating driving competence in demented persons is still lacking. In recognition of this fact, the Swedish National Road Administration invited a group of researchers to formulate a consensus on the issue of driving and dementia. This consensus document is aimed at providing primary care physicians with practical advice concerning the assessment of cognitive status in relation to driving. Suggestions are based on a review of existing research and discuss the use of general and driving-specific sources of information available to the physician. Consensus was reached on the statement that a diagnosis of moderate to severe dementia precludes driving and that certain individuals with mild dementia should be considered for a specialized assessment of their driving competence.