Superoxide production by NADPH oxidase intensifies macrophage antiviral responses during diabetogenic coxsackievirus infection

Academic Article


  • Coxsackievirus B infections are suspected environmental triggers of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and macrophage antiviral responses may provide a link to virus-induced T1D. We previously demonstrated an important role for NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived superoxide production during T1D pathogenesis, as NOX-deficient NOD mice (NOD.Ncf1m1J) were protected against T1D due, in part, to impaired proinflammatory TLR signaling in NOD.Ncf1m1J macrophages. Therefore, we hypothesized that loss of NOX-derived superoxide would dampen diabetogenic antiviral macrophage responses and protect from virus-induced diabetes. Upon infection with a suspected diabetogenic virus, Coxsackievirus B3 (CB3), NOD.Ncf1m1J mice remained resistant to virus-induced autoimmune diabetes. A concomitant decrease in circulating inflammatory chemokines, blunted antiviral gene signature within the pancreas, and reduced proinflammatory M1 macrophage responses were observed. Importantly, exogenous superoxide addition to CB3-infected NOD.Ncf1m1J bone marrow-derived macrophages rescued the inflammatory antiviral M1 macrophage response, revealing reduction-oxidation-dependent mechanisms of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 signaling and dsRNA viral sensors in macrophages. We report that superoxide production following CB3 infection may exacerbate pancreatic b cell destruction in T1D by influencing proinflammatory M1 macrophage responses, and mechanistically linking oxidative stress, inflammation, and diabetogenic virus infections.
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    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Burg AR; Das S; Padgett LE; Koenig ZE; Tse HM
  • Start Page

  • 61
  • End Page

  • 70
  • Volume

  • 200
  • Issue

  • 1