This paper examines the relationship between cognitive processes and driving in aging and dementia of the Alzheimer type. Several studies that have explored the relationship between neuropsychological test performance and various indicators of driving safety are reviewed. It is argued that deficits in selective attention are specific to impaired driving performance in dementia of the Alzheimer type. Results from a recent study supporting this notion are presented. It is suggested that screening measures that emphasize the ability to selectively attend to relevant information and inhibit irrelevant information should be used to identify mildly demented individuals who are at risk for unsafe driving.