Before the onset of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, the presence of multiple non-bladder syndromes is strongly associated with a history of multiple surgeries

Academic Article


  • Objective: Certain functional somatic syndromes (FSSs) such as fibromyalgia and irritable bowel syndrome are accompanied by diffuse pain amplification. Women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) have numerous FSSs, as well as other non-bladder syndromes (NBSs) that are linked to the FSSs. They also report multiple surgeries. Since pain is a common indication for surgery, we tested the hypothesis that NBSs were associated with surgeries. Methods: We interviewed 312 incident IC/BPS cases and controls on NBSs and number of surgeries before the index date (for cases, IC/BPS onset date). Poisson and logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, race, educational level, and menopause. Results: Number of surgeries increased with number of NBSs in both cases and controls whether chronic pelvic pain (CPP), the only NBS generally accepted as an indication for surgery, was present or not. Logistic regression analysis showed that among cases CPP was the only individual NBS associated with a history of multiple surgeries, and then only modestly [odds ratio (OR) 1.9, confidence intervals (CI) 1.06, 3.2]. By far the strongest association was the number of NBSs. The OR for multiple surgeries increased with number of NBSs: for cases with 4-5 NBSs the OR was 14.1 (1.8, 113) and with 6-9 NBSs, 33.1 (3.9, 279). Controls had fewer syndromes and fewer surgeries and this linkage was less prominent. Conclusion: Among IC/BPS cases, the number of NBSs was strongly correlated with the number of surgeries. Understanding temporal relationships will be necessary to explore causal linkages and may modify surgical practice. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
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    Author List

  • Warren JW; Morozov V; Howard FM; Wesselmann U; Gallicchio L; Langenberg P; Clauw DJ
  • Start Page

  • 75
  • End Page

  • 79
  • Volume

  • 76
  • Issue

  • 1