© 2017 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether racial and ethnic differences exist in the frequency of and indications for cesarean delivery and to assess whether application of labor management strategies intended to reduce cesarean delivery rates is associated with patient's race and ethnicity. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter observational obstetric cohort. Trained research personnel abstracted maternal and neonatal records of greater than 115,000 pregnant women from 25 hospitals (2008-2011). Women at term with singleton, nonanomalous, vertex, liveborn neonates were included in two cohorts: 1) nulliparous women (n=35,529); and 2) multiparous women with prior vaginal deliveries only (n=39,871). Women were grouped as non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and Asian. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the following outcomes: Overall cesarean delivery frequency, indications for cesarean delivery, and utilization of labor management strategies intended to safely reduce cesarean delivery. RESULTS: A total of 75,400 women were eligible for inclusion, of whom 47% (n=35,529) were in the nulliparous cohort and 53% (n=39,871) were in the multiparous cohort. The frequencies of cesarean delivery were 25.8% among nulliparous women and 6.0% among multiparous women. For nulliparous women, the unadjusted cesarean delivery frequencies were 25.0%, 28.3%, 28.7%, and 24.0% for non-Hispanic white, non- Hispanic black, Asian, and Hispanic women, respectively. Among nulliparous women, the adjusted odds of cesarean delivery were higher in all racial and ethnic.