© 2017 Elsevier Inc. Although hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is more common in the setting of cirrhosis, there is increasing evidence that it can develop in the setting of noncirrhotic nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and that steatosis alone can promote carcinogenesis. In addition, obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are recognized risks for the development of HCC. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of NAFLD/NASH-related HCC will allow the discovery of new targets for therapeutic and preventive intervention. The surveillance for HCC in the setting of noncirrhotic NAFLD/NASH, obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome remains an area of uncertainty.