The effect of hyperoxia on levels of DNA damage and global DNA methylation was examined in lung epithelial-like A549 cells. DNA damage was assessed by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) and DNA methylation status by the cytosine extension assays. Cells exposed to ionizing radiation (0, 1, 2, 4, or 8 Gy) showed increasing rates of percentage of DNA in the tail and tail length with increasing radiation dose. When cells were exposed to room air (normoxia) for 1 day and 95% O2 (hyperoxia) for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days, data indicated that hyperoxia caused time-dependent increases in levels of (a) single strand breaks, (b) double strand breaks, and (c) 8-oxoguanine. Decreased DNA methylation also was observed at day 5 of hyperoxic exposure, suggesting that hyperoxia-induced DNA damage can influence patterns of DNA methylation in a lung-derived cell line.