Clotrimazole induces a late G1 cell cycle arrest and sensitizes glioblastoma cells to radiation in vitro

Academic Article


  • Tumor cells are characterized by their high rate of glycolysis and clotrimazole has been shown to disrupt the glycolysis pathway thereby arresting the cells in the G1 cell cycle phase. Herein, we present data to support our hypothesis that clotrimazole arrests tumor cells in a radiosensitizing, late G1 phase. The effects of clotrimazole were studied using the glioblastoma cell line, U-87 MG. Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle redistribution and induction of apoptosis. Immunoblots were probed to characterize a late G1 cell cycle arrest. Nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions were collected to follow the clotrimazole-induced translocation of hexokinase II. Clonogenic assays were designed to determine the radiosensitizing effect by clotrimazole. Our studies have shown a dose-dependent and time-dependent clotrimazole arrest in a late G1 cell cycle phase. Concurrent with the late G1 arrest, we observed an overexpression of p27 along with a decreased expression of p21, cyclin-dependent kinase 1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, and cyclin D. Clotrimazole induced the translocation of mitochondrial-bound hexokinase II to the cytoplasm and the release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. Clotrimazole-induced apoptosis was enhanced when combined with radiation. Clotrimazole was shown to sensitize tumor cells to radiation when the cells were irradiated for 18?h post-clotrimazole treatment. The disruption of the glycolysis pathway by clotrimazole leads to cell cycle arrest of U-87 MG cells in the radiosensitizing late G1 phase. The use of clotrimazole as a radiosensitizing agent for cancer treatment is novel and may have broad therapeutic applications. Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • Authors

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Liu H; Li Y; Raisch KP
  • Start Page

  • 841
  • End Page

  • 849
  • Volume

  • 21
  • Issue

  • 9