Pacing During Ventricular Fibrillation. Introduction: Recent studies showed that pacing atrial and ventricular fibrillation (VF) is possible. The studies presented here determined which parameters influence the efficacy of a pacing train to capture fibrillating ventricular myocardium. Electrode type, current strength, order of pacing trains, polarity, and VF morphology preceding the pacing trains were investigated. Methods and Results: A 504-electrode recording plaque sutured to the right ventricle of pig hearts was used to record the activations of VF and those resulting from the pacing stimulation. Capture of VF by pacing was determined by observing an animated display of the first temporal derivative of the electrograms. A series of electrodes in a line captured the heart more frequently during VF than did a point electrode. Increasing the current strength to 10× diastolic pacing threshold increased the incidence of capture, but increasing this strength further did not. The second or third train of 40 stimuli had greater capture rates than did the first train during the same VF episode. Anodal and cathodal unipolar, and bipolar stimulation were equally efficacious in capturing VF. VF activation during the 1-second interval preceding pacing was more organized for pacing trains that captured than those that did not. The highest incidence of capture, 46% to 61% of pacing trains, occurred with a line of electrodes at 10× diastolic pacing threshold delivered by the second or third train. Conclusion: The probability of a pacing train capturing fibrillating myocardium can be influenced by the pacing protocol parameters.