Obesity and diabetes have reached epidemic proportions worldwide. The antidiabetic thiazolidinedione (TZD) drugs are insulin-sensitizing agents now widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. TZDs are ligands for the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ, which is a master regulator of adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism. The molecular mechanisms by which TZDs improve insulin sensitivity have not been fully identified. Here we consider a novel secreted factor first identified as a TZD-suppressible gene in mouse adipocytes, called resistin, and discuss what is currently known about resistin regulation and function in mouse and human.