The differences among individual eicosanoids in eliciting different physiological and pathological responses are largely unknown because of the lack of valid and simple analytical methods for the quantification of individual eicosanoids and their metabolites in serum, sputum and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Therefore, a simple and sensitive LC–MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of 34 eicosanoids in human serum, sputum and BALF was developed and validated. This method is valid and sensitive with a limit of quantification ranging from 0.2 to 3 ng/mL for the various analytes, and has a large dynamic range (500 ng/mL) and a short run time (25 min). The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision values met the acceptance criteria according to US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. Using this method, detailed eicosanoid profiles were quantified in serum, sputum and BALF from a pilot human study. In summary, a reliable and simple LC–MS/MS method to quantify major eicosanoids and their metabolites was developed and applied to quantify eicosanoids in human various fluids, demonstrating its suitability to assess eicosanoid biomarkers in human clinical trials.