© 2017 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Background. Although statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are generally well tolerated, the impact of these therapies individually or in combination on the change in neurocognitive function in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection is unknown. Methods. The study included participants in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials cohort participants not receiving a statin or ACEI/ARB within 30 days of first neurologic assessment (baseline), with assessments by NPZ-3 (z score of averaged Trailmaking A and B tests and digit symbol test [DST]) from ≥2 measurements. Marginal structural models estimated the causal effect of statin or ACEI/ARB initiation on neurocognitive function; initial constant slope was assumed during the first year of treatment and a second constant slope thereafter. Results. Of 3949 eligible participants, 16% started therapy with a statin, 11% with an ACEI/ARB, and 5% with both. Statin therapy had no significant effect on the composite NPZ-3 (primary outcome), Trailmaking B test, or DST. A small, nonsignificant positive effect on the Trailmaking A test was seen during year 1 (estimate, 0.088; 95% confidence interval,-.010 to .187; P = .08) and a small but significant negative effect (-0.033;-.058 to-.009; P = .007) in each subsequent year. ACEI/ARB therapy had a significant negative effect on the DST (-0.117; 95% confidence interval,-.217 to .016; P = .02) during year 1 but minimal effect in subsequent years or on other neurocognitive domains. Conclusions. In summary, although modest declines in neurocognitive performance were seen in single domains with statin or ACEI/ARB therapy, we did not find consistent evidence that statins or ACEI/ARB have an effect on global neurocognitive function. Future studies should focus on long-term neurocognitive effects.