Emergence in simulated evolution

Academic Article


  • Wolfgang Banzhaf's essay elegantly shows how emergence can be observed within the genetic programming (GP) framework. His work provides inspiration to employ GP for investigating emerging phenomena in biological evolution. This commentary attempts to further stimulate such development towards a more realistic GP framework by incorporating features observed in natural evolution. The examples discussed are multiscalarity, lower-level stochasticity, and co-evolution of repair or protection mechanisms. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Leier A
  • Start Page

  • 79
  • End Page

  • 81
  • Volume

  • 15
  • Issue

  • 1