© 2017 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. In the absence of significant benefit from either novel therapeutics or screening, the focus of decreasing ovarian cancer incidence and mortality has shifted toward primary prevention. Histopathologic data have demonstrated that up to 70% of ovarian cancers may actually arise from the fallopian tube. This has led to the increased adoption of opportunistic salpingectomy as a tool for ovarian cancer prevention. In turn, the potential surgical risks and ovarian cancer prevention of this emerging practice have generated multiple studies. In this comprehensive review, we address the origins of ovarian cancer, the historical context and recent trends of tubal surgery, the existing population-based data on ovarian cancer risk reduction, and provide a detailed review of the evidence on surgical risks of salpingectomy. To date, the safety and ovarian cancer risk reduction evidence sheds a positive light on opportunistic salpingectomy. Although research on this subject has grown substantially in recent years, there remains a paucity of large, prospective studies that examine clinical outcomes.