Identification of androstenedione in a river containing paper mill effluent

Academic Article


  • Effluent from a paper mill discharging into the Fenholloway River, Taylor County; Florida, USA, contains chemicals that masculinize females of the resident population of eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), as evidenced in females by elongated anal fins, which is normally a male-specific trait. To identify androgenic components in the effluent, water collected from the Fenholloway River and a control tributary was fractionated using solid-phase extraction and reverse-phase high-performance-liquid chromatography. Two Fenholloway River fractions induced androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional activity in transient transfection cell culture assays. Of these, androstenedione was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring.
  • Authors

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Jenkins R; Angus RA; McNatt H; Howell WM; Kemppainen JA; Kirk M; Wilson EM
  • Start Page

  • 1325
  • End Page

  • 1331
  • Volume

  • 20
  • Issue

  • 6