Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are prevalent worldwide and affect up to 1 out of 5 people, including both children and adults. Most HPV infections are asymptomatic; however, the spectrum of virus-associated conditions ranges from warts, such as verruca vulgaris and genital warts, to malignancies such as cervical and anogenital cancers. Many of the conditions display distinguishable clinical features that aid in diagnosis. Patterns of infection can be seen by age group, but geographic patterns of incidence and prevalence of HPV subtypes also have been identified. This chapter discusses the epidemiology, diagnostic features, clinical course, and treatment options for HPV infection and HPV-associated cancers.