Introduction: The Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) is a multidisciplinary and international organization committed to improving cancer prevention and treatment options as well as patient care through clinical trials and translational research (TR). This review focuses on the GOG treatment trials with specimen banking and TR in women at risk for or with invasive epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, and fallopian tube carcinoma (EOC/PPC/FTC). Patients and Methods: The trials have embedded prospective or retrospective TR objectives, and involve either patient specimen accrual or banked specimens and resources. Results: The GOG-199 protocol focuses on women with increased risk of breast and/or ovarian cancer. Phase III trials with prospective or retrospective TR target distinct subsets of patients including women with (1) previously untreated, high-risk, early-stage disease in the GOG-157 and 175 protocols; (2) previously untreated, advanced-stage disease in the GOG-111, 114, 132, 158, 172, 182, 218, and 252 protocols; (3) biochemical recurrence in the GOG-198 protocol; or (4) platinum-sensitive recurrent disease in the GOG-213 protocol. Consolidation/maintenance are examined in the GOG-175, 212, 218, and 213 protocols. Examples of the TR incorporated into the GOG studies include evaluations of tumor suppressors, oncogenes, cell cycle, angiogenesis, DNA damage and repair, immune cells, resistance, splicing factors and genetic modifers, as well as genomic and proteomic profles. Conclusion: The GOG trials continue to identify novel treatments and combinations, establish new standards of care, and defne biomarkers and profles with diagnostic, prognostic, and/or predictive value. Ultimately, the GOG trials will use biomarkers and profles with relevant clinical factors to refne treatment selection and individualize patient care for women at risk or with EOC/PPC/FTC.