Candidate biomarkers for application as intermediate end points of lung carcinogenesis.

Academic Article

Abstract

  • The need for validated intermediate end point markers to facilitate lung cancer chemointervention research is compelling. Three major classes of lung markers are relevant for this application. Since lung cancer includes four distinct histologies, markers that map degrees of histologic differentiation are important. Many of the markers for squamous differentiation overlap with the candidates for application in the study of head and neck cancer. Production of tissue-specific cell products especially for surfactant or CEA is of interest, because the gene structure is known and many differentiation-related polymorphisms exist. This strategy would be useful for adenomatous type tissue. A second type of marker is the broad group of differentiation markers. The carbohydrate or blood group-like antigens comprise a representative example. Carbohydrate structures are expressed in a specific sequence during fetal processes, and this sequence appears to reverse with the development of a cancer. Retrodifferentiation of specific differentiation markers is the basis of a major effort to effect earlier lung cancer detection using sputum immunocytochemistry. The final class includes markers which affect either positive or negative aspects of growth. Candidates in this area include growth factors or their receptors, or genes that regulate growth. If the intermediate end point marker reflects tumor biology and that biology is in the causal path of tumor progression, serial observation of that parameter should indicate the success of the intervention. In all three of these examples, the clinical material to be analyzed could be sputum specimens, bronchial biopsies or resected lung tissue. Systematic analysis of these markers in context of intervention trials is required to validate their utility.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
  • Author List

  • Jensen SM; Brown P; Birrer MJ
  • Start Page

  • 183
  • End Page

  • 186
  • Volume

  • 16 G